1. The capacity of a social-ecological system to cope with a hazardous event or disturbance, responding or reorganizing in ways that maintain its essential function, identity, and structure, while also maintaining the capacity for adaptation, learning, and transformation (Arctic Council, 2013).
2. The ability to function, survive, and thrive no matter what stresses happen and to skilfully prepare for, respond to, and manage a crisis. Finally, it should include the ability to return to normal operations as quickly as possible after a disruption.
3. The ability of a system, community or society exposed to hazards to resist, absorb, accommodate to and recover from the effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner, including through the preservation and restoration of its essential basic structures and functions.